General Inquiries

1. What kind of services does GakuNin RDM provide?
GakuNin RDM is a web service for researchers to manage their research data (papers, laboratory and survey data, programs, and images/audio/video data, etc.).You can store your files in the storage with a simple drag-and-drop operation from a web browser on your PC, and share the data in a closed environment within your laboratory or with co-researchers.
2. Where can I log in from?
You can log in to GakuNin RDM from your institution's common authentication system by accessing https://rdm.nii.ac.jp/ and selecting your institution's name from the pull-down menu in the upper right corner (Your institution must be subscribed to the GakuNin Access Management Federation and the GakuNin RDM service.)
3. Who provides the service?
GakuNin RDM is a service operated by the National Institute of Informatics.
4. When did the service officially begin?
The official launch of the service was on February 15, 2021.
5. I would like to know more about GakuNin RDM before applying to use the service. Is the information available? Is it included in the cloud checklist of the GakuNin Cloud Implementation Support Service ?
GakuNin RDM participates in the GakuNin Cloud Implementation Support Service. If you are a member of an institution participating in the GakuNin Cloud Implementation Support Service and registered on the dedicated website, you can download the verified checklist answers.
Please refer to the following URL for more information about the GakuNin Cloud Implementation Support Service.
6. Does GakuNin RDM support smartphones and tablets?
GakuNin RDM supports the web browsers for smartphones and tablets.
7. Is GakuNIn RDM a paid service? Are there any billing options?
For the time being, the service is free of charge. We are currently considering a billing structure for the future. The same applies to data analysis functions.
8. What services are provided by the Support Desk?
The support service is available to the Information Infrastructure Center, Library, Research Promotion Division, and other departments involved in the implementation and management of the service, and support is provided via e-mail. The support desk is open weekdays from 9:00 am to 5:45 pm and accepts inquiries only in Japanese. Responses to normal inquiries will be provided within 2-3 business days.
Please note that we do not respond directly to inquiries from end users, so please contact the relevant section of your institution.
9. What exactly does "24/7/365 staffed operator" do?
GakuNin RDM's system operation team monitors for system failures and performance degradation 24 hours a day, 365 days a year, and performs restoration work when problems occur. The user support desk is open during business hours (daytime on weekdays).
10. What platforms (hypervisor, OS, middleware, software packages, etc.) are used to provide the service?
We use the following OS and middleware (Linux, Docker, Kubernetes, PostgreSQL, Elasticsearch) on AWS to configure our system.
11. Does GakuNin RDM have an interface other than Japanese?
You can switch between Japanese and English in the language settings of your web browser.


1. What types of organizations can subscribe? Are there any restrictions?
The following types of organizations are eligible to subscribe:
  • Universities, junior colleges, colleges of technology, inter-university research institutes, etc.
  • Research institutions, and independent administrative agencies and special corporations, etc., whose purpose is to conduct research or support research
  • Institutions that conduct joint research with the above institutions
  • Academic societies, public foundations and corporations for the purpose of academic research, general foundations and corporations, and educational facilities equivalent to universities, etc.
  • Publicly funded research and development projects
2. Is there any document, such as a Terms of Use, that specifies the details of the contract?
The following documents specify the contents of the contract:
  • The National Institute of Informatics Regulations for the Use of the Research Data Infrastructure Service
  • The National Institute of Informatics Detailed Regulations for the Use of the Research Data Infrastructure Service
To start using the service, you need to submit an application form for the use and consent to the terms of the service.
3. Is it possible to apply for use by only a specific department?
Yes, you can apply for use by a departmental unit. For example, if the use is limited to members of the university library, the application can be submitted under the name of the library director. If the entire university is using the service, please submit an application under the name of the president of the university.
4. Is it acceptable if an application for change or discontinuation of use is submitted by the head of an institution or department that is different from the initial application for use?
Yes, even if there has been a change in the head of the institution or department since the initial application for use, we will accept applications for change or discontinuation of use from the succeeding head of the same institution or department. Applications from former head who has moved to another institution or department will not be accepted.
5. Is it possible to use the service on a trial basis to verify the technical aspects?
We do not provide trial use. Please make an official application (the service is free of charge) and conduct the verification, etc.
6. What is the role of the "情報技術者" listed in the information notification form(情報届書)?
To use GakuNin RDM, authentication with "GakuNin" and IdP settings are required, so we think of the "技術担当者" as the person who will be responsible for configuring the system.
Please note that the "Technical Person" field is optional, so you can leave it blank in your application.


1. When I logged in for the first time with a new account, even if I entered the required items for the account information on the setting screen and pressed save, the entered contents were not saved.
When logging in for the first time, enter your email address in the "Registered Email Address" field. Detailed steps are below.
  1. Enter your email address in the "Registered email address" field under the account information field on the settings screen
  2. Receive email "件名:GakuNin RDMアカウントのメールアドレス追加 / Add a new email to your GakuNin RDM account"
  3. Click the provided link to log in to GakuNin RDM
  4. Enter account information on the setting screen
  5. Start using GakuNin RDM
2. Do I need an account on my institution's GakuNin IdP?
In order to use GakuNin RDM, you will need an account with an Identity Provider (IdP) of a GakuNin member institution.
If you are not a GakuNin member institution, please join the academic authentication federation "GakuNin" before installation, or Orthros acquired by each user after completing the application for GakuNin RDM use as an Orthros user institution must be used.
3. My affiliation has changed from an Orthros institution to a GakuNin institution, and when I try to use my old email address with a new account, an error message saying "Existing email address" is displayed and I am unable to use it.
GakuNin RDM does not allow you to use an email address registered with another account. Please follow the steps below to remove the email address you wish to use from your Orthros account:
  1. Enter a temporary alternative email address (one that has never been registered) in the email input field after logging in to your Orthros account and register it
  2. Click on the URL for confirming authentication in the email sent to the alternate email address
  3. After logging in, click the username in the upper right corner of the screen and select "Settings" from the pull-down menu that appears
  4. On the "Settings" screen, select "Account Settings" from the menu on the left side
  5. "Primary Email" and "Alternative Email" are registered; click on "Alternative Email" to make it "Primary Email".
  6. When the email address becomes the "Primary Email", click the cross (X) on the right side of the alternative email address to delete it
If an error occurs during the above steps or you are still unable to log in after following the steps, please contact us.

Research Trail Management

1. When a user handled a file, is it possible to check its logs?
GakuNin RDM manages the logs such as registration, editing and deletion of the research data files uploaded. It is effective in preventing research misconducts to manage research trails.
2. In Google Drive, there are some files that may cause an error even if you try to stamp them with a timestamp.
We are sorry, but Google Drive cannot verify timestamps for files located under folders that contain double-byte characters.


1. What security equipment does the data center have?
The data center is equipped with security cameras and permanent security guards.
2. How do you control access to the data center?
Entry and exit from the data center are controlled by pre-registration and identification by security guards using ID cards.
3. What measures are taken against disasters at the data center?
The data center is equipped with fire alarms and gas fire extinguishing systems as disaster prevention measures.
4. Do you have measures in place to ensure a stable power supply to the data center, such as monitoring, receiving power from two sources, and power generation system?
To ensure a stable power supply to the data center, we monitor the electrical system, receive power from two sources, use our own power generation system, and have an uninterruptible power supply (UPS).
5. For a stable operation of the data center network, are there any measures in place such as monitoring or duplication of network?
To ensure the stable operation of the data center network, we monitor network routes and duplicate the network.
6. Do you disclose the areas or regions where the data centers are located ?
The data centers are located within Japan and have a redundant design with at least two regions.
7. Is there any encryption available for the user data to be stored?
All objects are encrypted and stored using the storage's automatic encryption function. The encryption keys are assigned by the system and kept in the secure area. We use a backup system of encryption keys with a management tool to recover the encrypted data in the event of an incident. The encryption method for data in the storage is AES256-CTR.
8. Is the method of managing keys used for encryption in user data management disclosed?
The encryption keys are assigned by the system and kept in the secure area. We use a backup system of encryption keys with a management tool to recover the encrypted data in the event of an incident.
9. Is the data stored by the user multiplexed?
We perform file system backups automatically to multiple data centers. In addition, the data centers support multiplexing with storage functions.
10. Is it possible to obtain and manage multiple generations of backups for files stored by each user?
Yes, it is possible to obtain and manage multiple generations of backups.
11. Is it possible to specify the backup locations such as the same infrastructure, different infrastructure, different data centers, different regions, etc.?
No, it is not possible for users to specify a region; however, we automatically perform file system backups between multiple data centers.
12. Does the system retain the same level of security as the original data in terms of access restrictions and encryption of the backup data?
With regard to access restrictions and encryption of backup data on the standard storage (NII Storage), the system will retain the same level of security as the original data.
13. Do you have ISO27001 (ISMS, Information Security Management System) or similar certification for operating the service?
We have obtained ISO27001 (ISMS, Information Security Management System) certification in fiscal year 2021.
14. Is GakuNin RDM registered on ISMAP (Information system Security Management and Assessment Program) Cloud Service List?

No, it is not registered in ISMAP.
GakuNin RDM is listed in the cloud checklist of the GakuNin Cloud implementation support service.
Please refer to the following document for the relationship between GakuNin Cloud Checklist and ISMAP.

Linking to Repositories

1. What kind of repositories can I link to?
GakuNin RDM will link to the JAIRO Cloud(WEKO3) and allow you to register (i.e., publish) your data to repositories.
2. Could you consider cooperation with institutional repository systems other than JAIRO Cloud (providing functional specifications, etc.)?
We are prioritizing collaboration with JAIRO Cloud, but will also consider collaboration with other repository systems based on the same specifications.
3. Could you please show me the roadmap for implementing the GakuNin RDM and JAIRO Cloud collaboration function?
The GakuNin RDM and JAIRO Cloud collaboration function is scheduled to be made available to some early users institutions around the winter of 2024. After that, we plan to conduct demonstration experiments and update the features accordingly.
4. Are you planning to solicit applications for early use of the JAIRO Cloud collaboration function?
We plan to open an application process for early use. Details such as application conditions will be announced as soon as they are decided.
5. How do I register data to a repository from GakuNin RDM?
We are proceeding with the design so that research data can be registered in the repository by drag and drop in the same way as the storage service with the GakuNin RDM's repository add-on.
6. If the institutional repository is the research data publishing platform (JAIRO Cloud), is it intended to be linked with GakuNin RDM so that metadata and files for publication created in GakuNin RDM are mechanically handed over from GakuNin RDM to JAIRO Cloud?
The design of the system is intended to link GakuNIn RDM with the research data publishing platform (JAIRO Cloud) so that it mechanically registers metadata and organizes and submits files for publication. The system is designed to reduce the burden of metadata entry on the GakuNin RDM for researchers, and to enable curators to assign metadata more accurately on the JAIRO Cloud.
7. Will researchers be able to register metadata to JAIRO Cloud via GakuNin RDM?
This is possible by using GakuNin RDM's metadata registration function and the GakuNin RDM and JAIRO Cloud collaboration function together.
■User manual"Metadata Management Function"< /a>
8. In some cases, research funding agencies require Metadata Element Sets as a requirement for research data management.
Can GakuNin RDM's metadata function be equipped with Metadata Element Sets for each research grant by default?
Currently, GakuNin RDM's metadata management function only supports 「メタデータの共通項目」 in 「公的資金による研究データの管理・利活用に関する基本的な考え方」.
9. Is it possible to share storage between GakuNin RDM and JAIRO Cloud?
GakuNin RDM manages research data in a completely private environment, so GakuNin RDM and JAIRO Cloud cannot share the same storage. When research data is registered using the JAIRO Cloud linkage function, it is copied to the storage on the JAIRO Cloud side.


1. Can I set any level of access restriction per folder/file?
Access cannot be restricted per folder or file. Access can be restricted per project: this can be done by creating a new project and controlling the members to be added to it.
2. Is it possible to have a local copy of data stored in the cloud on the client side?
Yes, it is. The procedure depends on the storage service you use.
3. What kind of storages can I use?
You can use either the standard storage (NII Storage) or institutional storage, which are automatically connected, as well as extended storage, which can be optionally setup by the users on a project-by-project basis. For details on each storage type, please refer to the Glossary. For information on the types of external storage that can be setup by the institution's system administrator as institutional storage or extended storage, and how to link to them, please refer to Restrictions on Linkable External Storages.
4. How is the storage consumed in a project with multiple members?
The storage per user allowance is consumed from the project creator's capacity.
Example: A has created a new project and B joins as a member of the project. When B saves a file, A's storage space will be used.
5. Is there a limit to the amount of standard storage (NII Storage) that can be used?
GakuNin RDM's standard storage (NII Storage) is limited to 100 GB per user and less than 5 GB per file. Even if there are co-researchers, the capacity is consumed from the initial administrator of the project. Please note that there are no capacity limits for each institution.
6. Can I link to the object storage of my affiliated institution?
GakuNin RDM can be linked to object storages provided by major providers and those on on-premises servers of the member institutions. It can be used as institutional storage and extended storage.
7. Will a file be published on the Web when I upload it on the storage?
No. With GakuNin RDM, data will not be published unless you use the repository linkage function.
8. Can I control my file versions on the storage?
GakuNin RDM allows version control of data uploaded under the same file name.
9. Can I upload folders?
After selecting the storage or folder to upload on the "Files" tab, you can upload with the "Upload Folder" button on the toolbar. However, uploading by drag and drop is not possible.
10. Is it possible to change from the standard storage (NII Storage) to institutional storage in the middle of operation?
Yes, it is possible. Please apply for the change from Community Support by JPCOAR and NII. GakuNin RDM, however, does not support the transfer of data, projects, etc., so the users need to migrate manually. It is possible to download and re-upload files in Zip format by directory or by project.
11. When managing files using Oracle Cloud Infrastructure (OCI) as institutional storage, version control is not performed on GakuNin RDM. Is it possible to enable version control?
OCI's S3 interface does not support version control, so version control cannot be performed on GakuNin RDM.
12. Can I connect multiple accounts as extended storage for the same storage service within one project?
No. Only one storage service per type can be connected at the same time in one project.
13. If I create a project with members of other institutions and set up our university's contracted storage as extended storage, will researchers from other institutions also be able to upload and delete files to our university's contracted storage via GakuNin RDM?
Yes, any institutional storage/extended storage connected to a project can be uploaded or otherwise operated by project members regardless of their affiliation. Therefore, please check in advance whether the institution's storage usage policy allows you to connect to GakuNin RDM.
There are ways to restrict some usage by the institution administrator or each project manager.

・(Institution administrator) Add-on usage control for connected storage
Admin Manual > Restriction Functions of Storage Add-ons

・(Project administrator) Writing restrictions for project members
User manual > Adding Contributors > Contributor's Permissions Settings
14. When the folder hierarchy became deep and the file name including the path became long, an error occurred and the file could not be displayed. Is there a limit to the number of characters in the file?
GakuNinRDM has a limit on the total character length of folder names and file names. The currently confirmed character limits for storage are as follows.
(Standard storage [NII Storage] folder name + file name)
・If all half-width characters, 1144 characters or less
・If all double-width characters, 190 characters or less
(GoogleDrive folder name + File name)
・325 characters or less if all half-width characters
・39 characters or less if all full-width characters

Data Analysis

1. Binder used in the data analysis function can issue a link and share the execution environment with others, but is it possible to share the execution environment with others in the data analysis function as well?
If you are participating in the same project on GakuNin RDM, you can share the analysis environment. The analysis environment defined in GakuNin RDM is saved in the .binder folder of standard storage for each project and automatically shared with other members participating in the same project. To share with someone who isn't part of your project, you'll need to add them as project members.
Reference: https://www.nii.ac.jp/openforum/2022/day3_nii-rdc4.html →「データ解析機能」(JPN)


1. What kind of research software can I link to?
As GakuNin RDM's add-ons, you can link to source code repositories, document management tools, figure and table sharing services, data analysis platforms, workflow engines, etc.
2. How can I link to disciplinary repositories and web services?
GakuNin RDM provides its source code as open-source software on GitHub (https://github.com/RCOSDP). You can develop unique functions as add-ons. We will proactively take in add-ons that are in demand nationwide or across specialties and highly versatile to GakuNin RDM services.
3. Even if I "disconnect the account'' of an add-on that has been connected to the project, I can connect it without being prompted to enter account information by "importing account from profile'' and cannot switch to another account. Is there a way to delete add-on account information?
There are two ways to disconnect your account: 1) Disconnect from the project add-on screen and 2) Disconnect from the user menu.
In case 1), the add-on will be disconnected from the project, but the connection information will remain in the user menu, so you can reconnect without entering account information.
In 2), the add-on account information itself will be deleted, so you can switch to a different account. The detailed operation is as follows.
  1. Click "Settings" from the user menu on the right shoulder of the screen
  2. Click "Add-on account configuration" from the menu on the left side of the screen
  3. Check whether "Author:" is displayed for the add-on
  4. Click the "x" icon displayed after the created project name and click "Delete"
    (Display If not, you have already disconnected the project and no action is required)
  5. Click "Disconnect Account" displayed after "Author:"
  6. "Disconnect" Click
Reference: Settings
4. An error message "couldn't load" was displayed in the add-on storage, and a file could not be uploaded.
The add-on's authentication may have expired on GakuNin RDM. Please select "Disconnect Account" from the user's "Settings" > "Add-on Account Configuration" and then try re-authenticating your account.
Add-on authentication will be disconnected if GakuNin RDM is not used for 90 days.

Data Migration / End of Use

1. Is it possible to migrate user data to an on-premises environment or third-party cloud?
It is possible for users to manually migrate their own data within the application.
2. Is there a migration tool or means available for migrating user data to an on-premises environment or to a third-party cloud?
It is possible for users to manually migrate their own data within the application, but there is no automated migration tool.
3. Is it possible for the users to retrieve data prior to service termination when the users terminate the contract or when the cloud service provider terminates its business?
Yes, data can be downloaded from the front end of the web application by the users before the service is terminated.
4. If a user of GakuNin RDM leaves the institution for some reason, will the user be deleted?
When a user leaves the institution, the account and data will not be deleted.
5. If a project(component) administrator leaves the institution, can other users continue to access the project as long as they are members?
Other users can still access the project (component), but the project (component) administrator must grant administrative privileges to other users using the Members feature before leaving the institution.
If not granted, the administrator will be absent and will not be able to increase or decrease members, change permissions, or delete the project (component).
6. If a project administrator leaves the institution and another administrator takes over, what happens to the consumption of the new administrator's standard storage (NII Storage)?
Another user other than the project creator can take over the project and, by doing so, it does not consume his/her own standard storage (NII Storage) quota as long as he/she uses it as the succeeding administrator. Also, if the original project creator moves to another institution, he/she will have a new user account and thus the quota consumption of the standard storage (NII Storage) will not be carried over.
7. When a user moves from one institution to another, what needs to be done by the user and the institution administrator?
The tasks will differ depending on whether the institution before transfer corresponds to an GakuNin institution (institutional IdP) or an Orthros institution.

1. GakuNin institution → GakuNin institution
2. GakuNin institution → Orthros institution

Projects that were members of users of the institution's IdP before the transfer will no longer be members as a result of the transfer.
In order to continue using the service after the transfer, you will need to have the project administrator invite you to the user account of the IdP of the institution you are transferring to.
If you are transferred to "2. Orthros institution", each person will start by registering an account on their own.

For projects with only one member, the user is the project administrator. The work of the project manager is described below.

[User (Project Administrator)]
For institutional IdP users, if the account is deleted at the institution, IdP (SAML) authentication will not pass and you will not be able to log in. The data will remain.
If there is only one project administrator and that user's university account expires, the project administrator will be absent and will not be able to add members.
Please set other members as administrators before it expires, or delete the project if you no longer need it.
The last person in the project (=project administrator) cannot leave the project, but if the project administrator revoke his or her university account, the project will remain with no users and no one can access it. Masu.

Add member

[Institution Administrator]
(Assuming users of the GakuNin RDM management function)
We also ask that administrators take over when transferred.

IdP Settings Manual


3. Orthros institution → GakuNin institution (institutional IdP)
4. Orthros institution →Orthros Institution

If the registered email address becomes unusable due to a change, you will need to change the registered information in your Orthros account.
Due to the characteristics of Orthros, your account will not be invalidated due to transfer, but if the institution you transfer to is not the applying institution or does not allow use by Orthros (as in 3. Please note that GakuNin RDM does not allow the use of Orthros. Please help with tasks such as project takeover and data migration.

[Institution Administrator]
The GakuNin RDM management function is not available in Orthros, so no work is required.

For Administrators

1. Can I change my IdP (entityID)?
You can change it, but it is not recommended as changing the entityID will reset the GakuNin RDM environment. For details, please refer to Important Notes on Changing IdP Host Name[JPN] on the GakuNin website. Other services you use may also be affected. GakuNin RDM does not support the transfer of data, projects, etc., so the users need to migrate manually. It is possible to download and re-upload files in Zip format by directory or by project. If you agree with the above, please apply for change of IdP (entityID) from Community Support by JPCOAR and NII.
2. What happens if the IdP (entityID) is changed from Orthros to Institutional IdP?
Since the users of Orthros and Institutional IdP are treated separately, the users will still be able to connect via Orthros after changing to Institutional IdP; however, the same email address cannot be used. It is possible to reuse the email address as the email address for the institutional IdP by changing the email address registered on Orthros to another one. GakuNin RDM does not support the transfer of data, projects, etc., so the users need to migrate manually. It is possible to download and re-upload files in Zip format by directory or by project.
3. What happens if the IdP (entityID) is changed from Institutional IdP to another institutional IdP?
The GakuNin RDM environment will be reset once. GakuNin RDM does not support the transfer of data, projects, etc., so users must manually migrate. It is possible to download and re-upload files collectively with Zip by directory or by project.
If shared with users from other institutions, projects for which contributors from other institutions have admin rights for those projects will remain. It becomes available when the administrator adds a new institutional IdP user.
4. When changing an IdP, is it possible to keep the environment before the change?
When changing IdPs (e.g., Orthros -> GakuNin IdP, GakuNin IdP -> another GakuNin IdP [change of entityID]), the users need to manually migrate data, projects, etc. in the environment before the change, as GakuNin RDM does not support the transfer of data, projects, etc. It is possible to download and re-upload files in Zip format by directory or by project.
5. Is a function to obtain usage statistics such as number of accesses to the service, resource utilization, etc. available?
In the management function of the service, the institution's system administrator can obtain the number of files, total file size, number of files per file extension, etc. for each storage linked to the provided application for each institution. If you are a system administrator of an institution, please refer to the "IdP Setup Manual"(JPN).
6. Due to the specifications of the GakuNin IdP server we are building, it is not possible to set the attribute value of "eduPersonEntitlement" for each user. Is there any other way to restrict users of administrator functions?
The only way to control access to the GakuNin RDM institution administrator function is to assign the GakuNinRDMAdmin attribute to eduPersonEntitlement. If you want to grant access permission to the institution administrator function only to specific users, please consider setting the attribute value GakuNinRDMAdmin to only those users on the institution IdP server.
7. In order to limit off-campus access to the storage procured by the university via GakuNin RDM, could you tell me the IP address for communication with the add-on connected expansion storage?
Since IP addresses are updated irregularly, it is not possible to restrict by specific IP.
8. When I specify NII Storage as an institutional storage using the administrator function "Institutional Storage", the "Name" in the menu is displayed as "United States". Can this "Name" be changed?
"United States" is the standard name for standard storage (NII Storage). This name cannot be changed.


1. Is there a defined frequency or standards for upgrading versions of the OS and applications of the servers used to provide the service?
We upgrade the versions of the OS and applications about once a quarter. In case of emergency, appropriate measures are taken as required.
2. At what level are the resources used by a user separated from the resources of other users?
They are separated at the application level of the provided web applications. Default storage provided by the application is separated by a control mechanism of the storage device.
3. Can I use the GakuNin RDM logo on materials for meetings, presentations, etc.?
We discuss the request for the use of the logo mark on a case-by-case basis. Please contact us from the following link:
GakuNin RDM Inquiries (rdm_support)
4. While using GakuNin RDM, it suddenly stopped letting me access the file screen or the wiki screen.
  • GakuNin RDM is constantly being updated to improve the application. The screen may temporarily become unavailable, but this will not affect your data.
  • li>Please clear your browser cache or close your browser and log in again to use the latest version of GakuNin RDM.
  • If JavaScript is disabled, the pull-down menus on the login screen may not be displayed.
  • If you are using security software such as image filters or plug-ins in your web browser, the pull-down menus on the login screen may not be displayed.
  • If this is the case, please allow https://accounts.rdm.nii.ac.jp and https://ds.gakunin.nii.ac.jp so that they will be displayed.
5. When I added a new page to the Wiki, the scroll bar in the page list began to behave unnaturally.
Due to the specifications, when the number of Wiki pages exceeds 50, unnatural behavior will occur.
We apologize for the inconvenience, but please ensure that the number of pages does not exceed 50.